Liver-Chip

Live Staining of CLF Uptake into Bile Canaliculi

Introduction

Corning® Cholyl-lysyl-fluorescein (CLF) staining is used to visualize the structure and function of bile canaliculi in polarized hepatocytes. CLF is a substrate for the canalicular bile salt export pump (BSEP), thus it can be used to visualize BSEP-mediated canalicular efflux, as well as to label the bile canaliculi structures.


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Human Cleaved Caspase-3 (Asp 175) Quantification

Introduction

The Cleaved Caspase-3 (Asp175) SimpleStep ELISA® kit is designed for the quantitative measurement of Active Caspase-3 (Asp175) protein in human cells. Caspase-3 is a cytoplasmic cysteine protease involved in the activation cascade of caspases responsible for cell apoptosis.

The SimpleStep ELISA uses an affinity tag labeled capture antibody and a reporter conjugated detector antibody which immunocaptures the sample analyte in solution. This three-part complex is then immobilized via immunoaffinity of an anti-tag antibody coated on the well.

This endpoint can be applied to measure apoptosis in Organ-Chips as part of toxicity testing or other types of studies.


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Gsh-Glo™ Glutathione Assay

Introduction

The GSH-Glo™ Assay is a luminescent-based assay for the detection and quantification of glutathione (GSH), an antioxidant that can prevent damage to cellular components caused by reactive oxygen species such as free radicals, peroxides, and lipid peroxides. GSH is involved in the detoxification of both xenobiotic and endogenous compounds. A change in GSH levels can be used as an indicator of toxicity.


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Glutathione S-Transferase (αGST) Assay

Introduction

TECO® αGST is an ELISA for the quantitative determination of alpha Glutathione S-Transferase (αGST). GSTs are enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of glutathione to electrophilic centers on a wide variety of substrates in order to make the compounds more water-soluble. The role of GSTs is to detoxify endogenous compounds such as those that enable the breakdown of xenobiotics. High intracellular concentrations of GSTs coupled and released into serum are indicators of hepatocyte injury and toxicity and can be used as biomarkers. They are also used as indicators of renal injury and nephrotoxicity.


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Keratin 18 (K18) Assay

Introduction

Keratin 18 (K18) is an intracellular protein expressed at high levels by many types of epithelial cells. During cell death, the cellular content of soluble K18 will be released into the extracellular compartment. The M65 EpiDeath® ELISA measures soluble keratin 18 (K18) (cytokeratin 18 [CK18]) released from dying cells and can be used in the research of overall cell death (due to apoptosis and necrosis) of epithelial cells.


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Fluorescence Imaging

Introduction

All fluorescent or confocal imaging of cells can be done directly in the Organ-Chip. You do not need to disassemble the chip, or isolate the membrane in order to image cells. The membrane is located 0.8 mm from the bottom of the chip and is visually accessible by most objectives on most microscopes, although the use of a long-working distance objective lens is recommended for optimal results. The chip is made of an optically transparent material that will not cause any significant distortion of your signal or image; it does not auto fluoresce.


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